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NINETY EIGHT REGENCY

The Size of Scope Of GM

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I am going to share something. Many of you may know these facts. I will tell a little about GM and GM Europe and and the Buick and Opel relationship. As you see Opel Insignia is the Buick Regal The Astra is a Buick. This is not new. I will tell you what GM owns and once owned also:

Well.. lets go back into time,,,,

Many cars sold by General Motors worldwide are Opel engineered vehicles, including such models as the Corsa, Astra, Insignia and Zafira. Opel models are also sold under other GM brand names, such as Vauxhall in the UK, Buick in China and North America and Chevrolet in Latin America. Its Zafira people carrier was sold in Japan badged as a Subaru Traviq, while the Omega was sold in the US as the Cadillac Catera for model years 1997 to 2001. Other models sold in the US, but slightly modified, include the Saturn L-Series and Saturn Aura.

Opels appeared under their own name in the USA from 1958 to 1975, when they were sold through Buick dealers as captive imports. The best-selling Opel models in the US were the 1964–1972 Opel Kadett, the 1971–1975 Opel Manta, and the now-classic 1968-1973 Opel GT. (The name "Opel" was also applied from 1976 to 1980 on vehicles manufactured by Isuzu (similar to the "Isuzu I-mark"), but mechanically those were entirely different cars).

Opel in Europe:

Opel vehicles are sold as Vauxhalls in the UK. In other right hand drive markets in Europe, like Ireland, Cyprus and Malta, the main brand name is now Opel. However, many Vauxhall cars are imported second hand from the UK and sold in Ireland. Vauxhall has rejected this on the grounds that its brand is well known and, in the eighties, there was a preference among fleet buyers, the main customer base at the time, for the Vauxhall brand. In the rest of Europe where cars are left hand drive, they are Opel.

How long as GM owned Opel:

The Adam Opel GmbH is a German company which produces cars under the Opel/Vauxhall brand and was founded on 21 January 1863, began making automobiles in 1899, and was acquired by General Motors in 1929. It has been a wholly-owned (100%) subsidiary of General Motors.

How Long has GM owned Vauxhall:

Vauxhall Motors Limited is a British automobile company, owned by General Motors. Most current Vauxhall models are right-hand drive derivatives of GM's German Opel marque; however, production of left-hand drive vehicles also takes place for export to other parts of Europe, and certain marginal markets. There are also several performance vehicles coming from Opel Performance Center (OPC) and Holden/Holden Special Vehicles in Australia. Vauxhall is headquartered in the Griffin House in Luton,United Kingdom.

In 1925, Vauxhall was bought by GM for US$2.5 million. The company's pre-war image and target market were abruptly changed - with the introduction in 1931 of the first Bedford truck, which was Chevrolet based, along with the low-cost two litre Vauxhall Cadet. The company's future chief engineer, Harold Drew, left Luton for a spell working as a draughtsman with GM's Lansing based Oldsmobile division.

Well. well.. It looks like Vauxhall has a "Oldsmobile" connection.

Vauxhall's connection with Opel and Holden:

From the 1970s, most models were based on models made by Opel in Germany. The Chevette, Cavalier and Carlton were basically restyled versions of the Kadett, Ascona and Rekord, featuring a distinctive sloping front end, nicknamed the "droopsnoot", first prototyped on the HPF Firenza. The Carlton/Viceroy and Royale were simply rebadged versions of Opel's Opel Commodore C and Senator, imported from Germany.

This was the starting point for the "Opelisation" of Vauxhall. With the 1979 demise of the Viva, GM policy was for future Vauxhall models to be, in effect, rebadged Opels, designed and developed in Rüsselsheim, with little engineering input from Luton. In the late '70s and early '80s, GM dealers in theUnited Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland sold otherwise identical Opel and Vauxhall models alongside each other. This policy of duplication was phased out, beginning with the demise of Opel dealerships in the UK in 1981. The last Opel car (the Manta coupe) to be "officially" sold in Britain was withdrawn in 1988.

Similarly, the Vauxhall brand was dropped by GM in Ireland in favour of Opel in 1982, with other right hand drive markets like Malta and Cyprus soon following suit. In New Zealand, the brand was withdrawn after the demise of the Chevette. Many new Opel-badged cars have been privately imported into the UK from Ireland, and other EU countries, while many Vauxhalls have been imported second hand into the Republic.

GM Europe then began to standardise model names across both brands in the early 1990s. The Vauxhall Astra and Opel Kadett, for example, were both called Astra from 1991 onwards; the Vauxhall Cavalier and Opel Vectra were both called Vectra from 1995 etc. With the exception of the VX220, sold by Opel as the Speedster, all of Vauxhall's models now have the same names as those of Opel.

Since 1994, Vauxhall models differ from Opels in their distinctive grille - featuring a "V", incorporating the Vauxhall badge. This has also been used by Holden in New Zealand, by Chevrolet in Brazil on the Mk1 Chevrolet Astra (Mk1 Opel Astra) and on the Indian version of the Opel Astra. The "V" badging is an echo of the fluted V-shaped bonnets that have been used in some form on all Vauxhall cars since the very first. The "V" grille is not however used on the Vectra-replacing Insignia, unveiled in 2008 and the 2009 Vauxhall Astra.

A model unique to the Vauxhall range is the high performance Monaro coupé, which is sourced from and designed by Holden in Australia. Although this model is also produced in left hand drive (LHD) for markets like the U.S. (known as the Pontiac GTO) and in the Middle East and South Africa(known as the Chevrolet Lumina), the model is not currently offered by Opel in mainland Europe. Imports of this vehicle are limited to 15,000 to avoid additional safety testing. A future vehicle that Opel has not confirmed, but Vauxhall has, is the Holden Commodore SSV and the HSV GTS. The SSV has a GM 6.0 L98 V8, and the HSV uses the high performance GM 6.0 LS2 V8. Both are on the new GM Zeta platform, which will underpin many future full-size GM vehicles. Vauxhall confirmed the import of the HSV just after the reborn Opel GT roadster was announced as not being imported into the UK. Vauxhall claim the Vauxhall Commodore and HSV will replace the Monaro, and be far more

aggressively styled than the HSV, and have several defining Vauxhall features.

The bodywork for the Holden Camira estate was used for the Vauxhall Cavalier estate in the UK (though not for the identical Opel Ascona in the rest of Europe) - conversely the rear bodywork of the T-car Vauxhall Chevette estate and Bedford Chevanne van was used for the respective Holden Geminiversions. Vauxhall's compact car, the Viva, formed the basis of the first Holden Torana in Australia in the 1960s.

Many cars badged as Opels, even LHD models, are produced by Vauxhall for export. Vauxhall has built some Holdens for export, too, notably Vectra-As to New Zealand and Astra-Bs to both Australia and New Zealand.

How Long GM has owned Holden:

GM Holden Ltd is an Australian automaker based in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The company was founded in 1856 as a saddlery business, but later moved into the automotive field, becoming a subsidiary of General Motors (GM) in 1931. Holden has taken charge of vehicle operations for GM in Australasia and, on behalf of GM, holds partial ownership of GM Daewoo in South Korea. That is now 70% ownership. Over the years, Holden has offered a broad range of locally produced vehicles, supplemented by imported GM models. In the past, Holden has offered badge engineered Chevrolet, Isuzu, Nissan, Suzuki, Toyota, and Vauxhall Motors models in sharing arrangements, with Daewoo, Opel and Isuzu-sourced models sold currently.

Interesting facts about Holden:

Holden's association with the manufacture of Chevrolets and Pontiacs ended in 1968, coinciding with the year of Holden's next major new model, the HK .This included Holden's first V8 engine, a Chevrolet engine imported from Canada.

The GTO and the G8 was not the first time Holden built Pontiacs and Chevrolets.

During the 1970s, Holden ran an advertising jingle "Football, Meat Pies, Kangaroos and Holden cars based on the "Baseball, Hot Dogs, Apple Pies and Chevrolet" jingle used by Chevrolet in the United States:

The final phase of the Commodore's recovery strategy involved the 1988 VN, a significantly wider model powered by the American-designed, Australian-assembled 3.8 litre Buick V6 engine.( the 3800 V6)

Sales of the full-size Holden Suburban SUV sourced from Chevrolet commenced in 1998—lasting until 2001

The Buick-sourced V6( 3800 V6) engine, produced locally, powered the Commodore range, as did the 5.0 L (305 cu in) V8 engine, replaced in 1999 by the 5.7 L (348 cu in) GM LS unit. Holden was using American GM engines , but built them locally.

GM Brazil:

General Motors do Brasil is the largest subsidiary of the Corporation in South America and second largest operation outside the United States. On January 26, 2005 completed 80 years of activities in the country. The company was founded in 1925 in rented houses in the historic district of Ipiranga in Sao Paulo.

GM China:

The company manufactures most of its China market vehicles locally through Shanghai GM, a joint venture with the Chinese company SAIC, which was created on March 25, 1997. The Shanghai GM plant was officially opened on December 15, 1998, when the first Chinese-built Buick came off the assembly line. The SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile joint-venture is also successfully selling trucks and vans under the Wuling marque (34% owned by GM).

How GM is structured globally:

In 2009, General Motors employs approximately 244,500 people around the world. General Motors' global headquarters is the Renaissance Center located in Detroit, Michigan, United States. In 2008, GM sold 8.35 million cars and trucks globally.GM is the majority shareholder in GM Daewoo Auto & Technology Co. of South Korea and has collaborations with Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation of China, AvtoVAZ of Russia, and most recently, UzAvtosanoa of Uzbekistan.

General Motors is structured into the following operating groups:

Group Number: of employees

GMAP (GM Asia-Pacific) 33,000

GME (GM Europe) 55,000

GM LAAM (GM Latin America, Africa and the Middle East) 33,000

GMNA (GM North America) 112,000

Other operations 2,000

Total number of employees 235,000

History of GM North America:

General Motors was founded on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company for Buick, then controlled by William C. Durant. It acquired Oldsmobile later that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore, Oakland and several others. Also in 1909, General Motors acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso, Michigan, and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, Michigan, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers' trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales. A few years later, Durant started the Chevrolet Motor car company and through this he secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant took back control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in American business history. Durant then reorganized General Motors Company into General Motors Corporation. Shortly after, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation and led it to its post war global dominance. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants.

GM previously led in global sales for 77 consecutive years (1931 to 2007), longer than any other automaker.

Old GM (1908 - 2009)

Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMDaewoo (48.2%), GMC, Holden, Hummer, Oldsmobile, Opel, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn, Vauxhall

5,900 dealerships

Ownership: Common shareholders, bondholders and secured creditors

47 US plants

91,000 US employees

New GM (2009- )

Brands Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet,

GMDaewoo (70.1%), GMC, Holden,

Opel, Vauxhall

Dealerships 3,600

Ownership: The United States Treasury, the Crown in Right of Canada, Old GM bondholders, and UAW union

34 US plants

68,000 US employees

Auto Racing:

General Motors has an extensive history in numerous forms of racing. In particular, the Chevrolet Corvette has long been popular and successful in international road racing. GM also is a supplier of racing components, such as engines, transmissions, and electronics equipments.

GM's Oldsmobile Aurora engine platform was successful in the Indy Racing League (IRL) throughout the 1990s, winning many races in the small V-8 class. GM has also done much work in the development of electronics for GM auto racing. An unmodified Aurora V-8 in the Aerotech, captured 47 world records, including the record for speed endurance in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America. Recently, the Cadillac V-Series has entered motorsports racing. GM has also used many cars in the American racing series NASCAR. Currently the Chevrolet Impala is the only entry in the series but in the past the Pontiac Grand Prix, Buick Regal, Oldsmobile Cutlass, Chevrolet Lumina, Chevrolet Malibu, and the Chevrolet Monte Carlo were also used.

In touring cars (mainly in Europe), Vauxhall is a key player and former champion in the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) series and competes with a Vauxhall Vectra in Super 2000 spec, although have announced plans to withdraw at the end of 2009. Opel used to participate in the DTMseries and also in the 1980s in the World Rally Championship and other Rally Series with Group B Spec Opel Manta's before this category of Rallying was banned. Chevrolet competes with a Chevrolet Cruze in the FIA World Touring Car Championship (WTCC). Tempus Sport and RML also compete with privately run Lacettis in the BTCC.

In Australia, there is the prestigious V8 Supercar Championship which is battled out by the two main rivals of Holden and Ford. The current Holden Racing Team cars are based on the Holden Commodore and run a 5.0-litre V8-cylinder engine producing 635 bhp (474 kW). These cars have a top speed of 294 km/h (183 mph) and run 0–100 km/h in 3.8 seconds. The Holden Racing Team is Australia's most successful team in Australian Touring Car History. In 2006 & 2007, the Drivers championship was won by the very closely linked HSV Dealer Team.

Current brands (as of 2010 a countries where they are sold) :

Buick 1908–present North America, China, Israel, Taiwan

Cadillac 1909–present Global, except South America, India, SE Asia, Australia

GMC 1912–present North America, Middle East

Opel 1929–present

Chevrolet 1917–present Global, except Australia

Vauxhall 1925–present United Kingdom ,East, China, India)

Holden 1948–present Australia, New Zealand, Middle East, South Korea, South Africa, UK

Daewoo 2002–present South Korea, Latin America

Defunct brands:

* Acadian (1962–1971) ( Canada)

* Asüna (1993) ( Canada)

* Beaumont (1966–1969) ( Canada)

* Bedford Vehicles (1929–1987) ( United Kingdom)

* Elmore (1909–1912) ( United States)

* Envoy (1960–1970) ( Canada)

* General Motors Diesel Division (1938–1987)( United States)

* Geo (1989–1997) ( United States)

* LaSalle (1927–1940) ( United States)( a low end luxury brand sprung out of Cadillac)

* Marquette (1930) ( United States) ( a low end brand sprung out of Buick)

* McLaughlin (1918–1942) (Canada)

* Oldsmobile (1897–2004) ( United States and Canada)

* Oakland (1909–1931) United States. Pontiac's name before it became Pontiac

* Passport (1988–1991)( Canada)

* Pontiac (1926–2010) ( United States and Canada)

* Ranger (1968–1976) ( South Africa)

* Rapid Truck (1909–1912) ( United States)

* Reliance Truck (1909–1912)( United States)

* Samson Tractor (1917–1922) ( United States)

* Saturn (1985–2010) ( United States)

* Scripps-Booth (1917–1923)( United States)

* Statesman (1971–1984) ( Australia)

* Viking (1929–1931) ( United States. A low end brand sprung out of Oldsmobile)

* Yellow Coach (1925–1943) ( United States)

Sold brands:

* Frigidaire (1919–1979), sold to Ohio-based White Consolidated Industries

* Lotus (1986–1993), sold to Luxembourgish A.C.B.N. Holdings S.A.

Former affiliates:

* Fiat (2000–2005), GM owned 20% at one time with put option

* Fuji Heavy Industries, manufacturer of Subaru (1999–2006), GM owned 20% at one time

* Isuzu (1971–2006), GM owned 49% at one time

* Suzuki (1981–2008), GM owned over 20% at one time

Spin-offs:

* GM Defense 1950–2003 was once part of General Motors Diesel Division and as General Dynamics Land Systems division of General Dynamics

* Electro Motive Division of General Motors was also once part of General Motors Diesel Division and now known as Electro-Motive Diesel

* Detroit Diesel sold to Penske Corporation; broken up and portion sold to the former Daimler-Chrysler AG (now Daimler AG); now part of Daimler AG

* Transit division was sold to Motor Coach Industries and Transportation Manufacturing Corporation

* RTS and Classic bus rights owned by MCI And TMC were sold off to Nova Bus; now produced by Millennium Transit Services

* Diesel Division of General Motors of Canada Limited spun off and later acquired by General Motors Canada as Diesel Division of General Motors of Canada Limited

* EDS – Electronic Data Systems

* Hughes Electronics (Now The DirecTV Group(Liberty Media))

* 1999 GM spun off its parts making operations as Delphi

Subsidiaries:

* AC Delco

* Adam Opel GmbH

* Vauxhall Motors

* GMAC (less than 10%)

* General Motors Canada

* General Motors do Brasil

* General Motors India

* Global Hybrid Cooperation

* General Motors South Africa

* GM-AvtoVAZ

* GM Daewoo (70.1%)

* General Motors Europe

* GM Holden Ltd

* GM Performance Division

* GM Powertrain Europe

* OnStar

* Shanghai GM (49%)

* SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile Joint venture in China.

This is why if Pontiac and Oldsmobile ever come back, they cannot be introduced as full line brands, and would have to be sub brands of existing brands.

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Nicely done, 98 !

>>"Holden's association with the manufacture of Chevrolets and Pontiacs ended in 1968... The GTO and the G8 was not the first time Holden built Pontiacs..."<<

You are referring to Austrailian Market Pontiacs, correct?

>>"This is why if Pontiac and Oldsmobile ever come back, they cannot be introduced as full line brands, and would have to be sub brands of existing brands."<<

Sorry, but I missed the explaination of why this is so.

>>"* Viking (1929–1931) ( United States. A low end brand sprung out of Oldsmobile)"<<

Viking was above Olds.

Euclid off-Road Machinery was another subsidiary sold-off in '68 as a result of the Gov anti-trust talk. There was also an airplane Division circa WWII... drawing a dumb blank off-hand.

Would prefer to also see the start years for the companies that pre-dated their existance outside of GM. For example; Cadillac - 1902. Olds engine work goes back to 1890- that never gets mentioned.

GM Coach - 1943 (named such after absorbtion of Yellow) ~ sold in 1987 to TMC Corp (subsidiary of Greyhound).

Randolph Motor Truck Co of Flint MI (1908-1912) was another 'fold-in' to GMC.

Little Motors, also started by Durant, 1911-1913/4, multiple models, was absorbed into Chevrolet (ironic, as Chevrolets were built for a period in the Little factory).

Pope-Toledo, the "Silent mile-a-minute car', luxury marque (up to $7500), 1903-1909, bought by Buick Motor in 1909 & absorbed.

-- -- -- -- --

There are still a LOT of other companies & suppliers bought up by GM, esp in the early years.

Someday, instead of researchers breezily dismissing the lesser-known & long-forgotten ingredients that have made up GM, there will be a definitive chronological listing of the companies, men & money involved.

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This is why if Pontiac and Oldsmobile ever come back, they cannot be introduced as full line brands, and would have to be sub brands of existing brands.

I don't get that last line. Nothing in the above dictates that, unless Pontiac and Olds went to the Liquidation Motors thing... in which case, someone else could ressurrect them... like awful Packard (ugh).

But I don't think GM did that... as they get licensing money from the past Pontiacs and Olds...

GM can make a new brand tomorrow, called Tiddles, if they want. The only potential problem with resurrecting P&O (besides money) would be ex-dealers trying to regain their dealerships.

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Wait a minute, I believe both Acadian and Beaumont were Pontiacs. I know that the Beaumonts were.

They are in the same sense that Valiants were originally separate from Plymouth... but for some reason, GM kept the distinction for out of the US stuff.

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Dear Guys:

Thank you. I thought you all would enjoy that information. I looked all that stuff up, and I even had to correct the info where I found mistakes in records. I stand corrected on the Viking thing. I knew it was associated with Oldsmobile because as you know I have Oldsmobile history books in my home. You are correct that Viking was above Oldsmobile.

You are also correct Balth. the above are Australian Pontiacs and Chevrolets. They had Grande' Parisienne as one example.I saw the photo and picture in the book. They were kits shipped to Australia and assembled there. I found that fact in my book "75 years of Pontiac". I was wanting people to know what they did with Holden is not new.

I was wanting people to know the whole Buick and Opel thing was not new either.

As for the last comment after I did all that work, I thought that may be why GM would find it hard to reintroduce Pontiac and Oldsmobile right now.

You guys are correct, they could introduce them again example: GEO. I apologize for that.

I did this to show something else too:

1. I wanted people to learn the GM history and see things I found interesting.

2. To show why Fritz, Rick, and the others had to go. They were destroying all that history and that much of the company.

3. To show how far GM's reach is in the world.

4. To show GM was not just into cars.

5. To show how getting rid of Vauxhall and Opel was not a wise move. They are deeply integrated into GM.

6. To give you a perspective of why OOD(PCS)knows of what he is talking about.

7. To open a discussion and let others add facts too.

Thank you for the comments and discuss..

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>>"I did this to show something else too:"<<

1., 3., 4,. 5., and 7. :: mission accomplished.

However; not so sure on #2 (or #6 for that matter).

History cannot be 'destroyed', and frankly very very few modern manufacturers in any industry hold their own history in any sort of regard. Even among car builders, for EX; you have mercedes pushing cheap hatchbacks, minivans and ancient SUVs. Porsche likewise is beting on an SUV & a sedan to make ends meet. History doesn't pay much in the way of bills, unfortunately.

But as for how ingrained Opel & Vauxhall are, many would point to how moreso Pontiac & Olds were ingrained, yet they are gone. Opel & Vaux could easily be discontinued or sold off- it's certainly within possibilities.

-- -- -- -- --

IIRC, Beaumont was not badged as a Pontiac, but was sold thru the same dealers and bore a slight family resemblence (to a degree). Acadians did not wear Arrowheads, either -- niether were registered as 'Pontiacs', but they were marketed with Pontiacs to flesh out the lineup. Why the disconnect?? IDK.

-- -- -- -- --

Historically, Holden built their own bodies for Pontiacs, but used American chassis's and mechanicals. This began in the '20s. Holden fell on hard economic times, fielded no '31-32 Pontiacs, and was bought out by GM in '31. Holden did not field it's own complete car until '48 (at Gov urging); prior to that it only built 'hybrids'. After this, in the '50s, assembly of Chevrolet, Pontiac & Olds in Aust by Holden declined significantly, and it is here that they were assembled as 'kits'. Last Holden-assembled Aust Pontiac was for the '68 model year.

Edited by balthazar
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IIRC, Beaumont was not badged as a Pontiac, but was sold thru the same dealers and bore a slight family resemblence (to a degree). Acadians did not wear Arrowheads, either -- niether were registered as 'Pontiacs', but they were marketed with Pontiacs to flesh out the lineup. Why the disconnect?? IDK.

As far as I understood, Beaumont wasn't a brand but rather a vehicle sold under the Acadian brand. The Acadian was the Nova and the Acadian Beaumont was a Chevelle...?

My grandmother (and later my father) had a four door 1969 Acadian 4-Door sedan (the one that looked like a Nova)

Edited by vonVeezelsnider
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>>"As far as I understood, Beaumont wasn't a brand but rather a vehicle sold under the Acadian brand."<<

My source says initially yes; the Beaumont was under Acadian, but it was "later" spun off as a separate line.

BTW- '69 was the last year for the Beaumont, '71 was the last for the Acadian. They were replaced by their American counterparts after that (Tempest/LeMans and Ventura II).

>>"The Acadian was the Nova and the Acadian Beaumont was a Chevelle...?"<<

Correct.

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It just hit me! What is the name of GMC's crossover? Acadia. What was the name of that Canadian GM Brand? Acadian.

In a way it is back, but as a GMC.

Future of GM: It is noted. I cannot go back and edit my post.

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More defunct brands:

Ewing, 1908-1910, about 100 built.

CarterCar, 1906-1916, bought by GM in 1909.

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General Motors Company, one of the world's largest automakers, traces its roots back to 1908. With its global headquarters in Detroit, GM employs 209,000 people in every major region of the world and does business in some 140 countries. GM and its strategic partners produce cars and trucks in 34 countries, and sell and service these vehicles through the following brands: Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, GM Daewoo, Holden, Opel, Vauxhall, Wuling and Jiefang.

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