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    Fumes: Tax Payer supplied Charging stations. Are we getting our money's worth?


    • With Charging stations showing up all over the west coast and especially in the Greater Seattle area, A questions came to mind. Tax Payer supplied charging stations, Are we getting our money's worth? This editorial hopes to expand on that question and show people what the current status is and point a light on it for you to decide if this is a smart spending of tight tax dollars.

    G. David Felt

    Staff Writer Alternative Energy - CheersandGears.com

    Wednesday, November 07, 2012

    Tax Payer supplied Charging stations.

    Are we getting our money’s worth?

    Recently, a newly expanded Park and Ride by my house went live with charging outlets for 20 cars having been installed at the Mountlake Terrace park-and-ride lot at 236th Street SW and I-5. A dedication "plug-in" ceremony was held Saturday a few weeks ago even though completion of the place happened back in May.

    Each of the 10 stations is equipped with two outlets. One is a 120-volt, "level 1" outlet that charges a car from empty to full in 16 to 30 hours, depending on the type of vehicle. The other is a 240-volt, level 2 charger than can juice up a car in eight to 15 hours per the community transit press release.

    post-12-0-05247300-1353819383.jpg

    This is the most charging stations installed in any one location so far in Snohomish or King Counties. The new stations in Mountlake Terrace are the first to be installed at a park-and-ride lot in the county, according to websites that show station locations.

    Mountlake Terrace applied for and received a $55,000 federal grant for the stations. The city paid for installation, which she estimated at a few thousand dollars. The ChargePoint brand stations are made by Coulomb Technologies of Campbell, Calif. The project was done with the blessing of Community Transit, which leases the site from the state for the park-and-ride lot. Commuters with electric vehicles can now park, plug in and let their cars charge up all day while they're gone.

    The service costs 85 cents per hour with a maximum of $4 per session. The charging stations take credit cards. The charger shuts off automatically when the car's battery is full. The state also is planning to install a network of stations this year along I-5 from Oregon to Canada and along U.S. 2, called the "Electric Highway." Most of these will include level 3, DC "fast chargers" that can power a car from empty to full in 30 minutes. Washington state has choosen fast chargers for the freeway systems from AeroVironment, Inc. This allows most EV’s to charge in less than 30 minutes but for older cars or to top off a battery, you will have the level 2 chargers from AeroVironment also. Plans are for users to be able to use personal credit cards or sign up for the AeroVirontment Network . The AV network is a fob based system to use for charging. During the install period, AeroVironment is allowing free charging till the complete highway system is in place.

    You have both the Community Transit blog and the City MountLake Terrace (PDF) talking up this event.

    This big question to be asked is was this really needed or necessary?

    In this picture you can see that 10 of the white signs are actually visible and these are to be used by plug in cars, but they seem to sit empty all the time. To the left where you see a couple cars parked the signs and the charging stations are actually covered in black plastic bags so the parking can be used by the general public as there is never enough parking for traditional gas powered cars.

    post-12-0-68672100-1353819465.jpg

    So we have 20 spots built for Electric only auto’s and 10 of them are actually covered up allowing traditional auto’s to park there with the other 10 being vacant and not being used at all. One can see this in the picture below also that the signs are covered in black plastic.

    In submitting a request to Mountlake Terrace, I got no response and in calling to the office no one was willing to talk about the electrical parking spots and the lack of use by these spots on top of the actual cost. The generalized comments have been it only cost a couple thousand to install the units, but one has to challenge that considering the unionized nature of Electrical work done in Washington State.

    It is interesting that depending on the model you have a cost of $490 to $39,900 per model depending on what model is chosen and then the installation cost. Yet some systems have no cost listed as the company wants to only do custom quotes. A fairly complete list of charging systems with some prices can be seen here.

    A recent story on the installation of charging stations on Stevens pass, Highway 2 in Washington State here says that they have chosen a vendor for the 8 to 10 DC fast chargers that came within the $1 million budget. Also stated in the next paragraph is that this is part of a $250 million electric highway.

    The Seattle PI had the following story on their web site that states the Seattle area is getting 2500 charging stations as part of the $230 million dollar Electric Highway. Altogether, 15,000 charging stations will be installed in 4 states (Washington, California, Arizona and Tennessee and the District of Columbia) This equals out to a cost of $15,333 per charging station for the electric highway and is in addition to the charging stations installed by Cities at park and ride lots.

    Tonia Buell, from the Washington department of transportation in an email response has stated that Washington already has 12 DC fast charging locations on the state’s electric highway program in addition to the public schools and private business who are installing hundreds of Level 2 (medium speed) chargers through the EV project. In asking if the state is funding any of these charging stations, the response was no this is primarily funded through the US Department of Energy, Electric Auto supply companies, private businesses and citizens contributing to the EV investment.

    The Washington DOT has posted on their web site about 8 to 10 fast chargers from a DOE $1.5 million grant and they talk about the EV Highway but do not mention the rest of the costs.

    Depending on which story and quote you go with, we either have $15,333 dollar charging stations or $16,666 charging stations. The cost of the charging stations plus which level you can use for your EV auto, Level 1, 2 or 3 gives you a 10 to 30 minute fast charge time or up to 8 hrs or longer.

    So you travel 80 miles if you truly can get this on a Nissan Leaf and then wait up to 30 min to charge and then travel another 80 miles. This alone means to travel the 174 miles from Seattle Washington to Portland Oregon you will need 3 stops for charging, 1 ½ hrs. plus your almost 3hrs of travel time. So you have a 4 -5hr trip from Seattle to Portland versus a 2 ½ hrs. trip in a petrol or CNG auto.

    Washington state DOT is using the story published by Motor Trend as a positive support and proof that you should ease your range anxiety.

    Yet even in this story, the amount of time spent charging along the so called EV Highway still also shows how much extra time it will take to travel a modest 250 miles. Even with the Flyer that is being provided to anyone who asks about the EV highway, it seems to beg more questions than answers.

    In regards to maintenance, the electric charging companies have a vested interest in these systems paying back and are responsible for maintenance to the units so as to not have a cost to anyone but those using them according the WSDOT. Yet what happens to a person when one of these systems is offline due to a need of maintenance and with no real answer being supplied on what is the life expectancy? Hours spent on a 120V charge will not cut it on a road trip.

    So in going back to our original question, Are we getting our money’s worth? Is the tax payer money really being well spent by investing in this technology at this time and what about the required Maintenance?

    Looking at the global picture we will eventually get to a need for this kind of charging, but society as a whole is nowhere near ready for using luxury golf cart type autos on the main roads for long road trips. The amount of vacant sitting parking spots dedicated to such a small amount of auto’s seems to show excessive waste in tax payers’ money when other needs should come first.

    It would seem that jumping on this technology which has been pushed by a very wealthy, well connected group of individuals is spending hard working tax payer’s money for a solution that is not needed at this time. Most people can charge their cars at home, drive to the park-N-ride lot and get back home without having to pay to charge up.

    So the question still begs to be asked; Is the tax payer getting their money's worth for the Electric highway?

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    This is such a tragicomic story, good grief, look at all those hefty-bag covered signs. It is nothing less than a boondoggle of epic proportions. Pure stupidity. And it is costing the public money... FOR WHAT? Better to use those shovels to dig for oil... which is not in tight supply now or for the next 100 years. :)

    Edited by ocnblu
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    It would be nice to see what other charging stations people have around the country and post pictures or see if they are covered up with garbage bags like my park and ride lot does.

    FYI, I checked in with the city asking if there had been any use of them since the news covered the official ceremony and they were turned on. The lady said that since that initial day there has been no use of them.

    WOW, spend tax payer dollars on items that no body needs, cause the auto industry knows better than to produce a pure electric car that will not sell.

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    There a few in downtown Tempe... I've seen Volts plugged into them.

    WOW so they are actually used then. So far I have seen not one car plugged into the hundreds of charging stations I find around the seattle area. It is like the 1/10th of 1% crowd pushed through due to having the money to win over the scum in the capital and they had the tax payers put all these charging stations in without really looking at how many auto's there were to use them.

    At least here in washington they went over kill on installing these things.

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    I'm afraid to say that it's all part of a much larger and grotesquely hideous picture.

    Let me be concise on my stance here without precise and in depth specifics. There absolutely needs to be a comprehensive national infastructure for electric cars. Regardless if you like or loathe the thought of them being around, cars with electric powertrains will be widely available as an option to buyers who want an alternative to fueling up with gasoline. Personally, that's more than okay with me because the more choice we have in regards to choosing what we decide to fuel up with, the better. Electric-powered cars are and will be to gasoline-powered cars what diesel-powered cars are to gasoline-powered cars. Any other viewpoint here is, honestly, erroneous and blighted.

    However, this should not be government sponsored, and it certainly should not come from our backpockets. Ideally, this should be a privatized industry, it's development spurred on and invested by true American entrepreneurs, similar to how an individual can buy and install, for example, a pinball machine in a barber shop and have a sort of buisness that way. The government taking control here should be the last thing we want and if you think that federal intervention will be the only way to have it, you need to really sit down and reconsider your priorities. If you want the United States to have a better national infastructure for charging electric cars, you need to take charge and do something about it yourself, be courageous and take a risk for once in your life. Take out a small personal loan and set one up outside of a healthy local buisness that will allow you to install a charging station for a nominal fee. It's common sense and, hey, in the process you'll have the opportunity to become that much better off and even create jobs.

    I'll quietly bow out now.

    Edited by black-knight
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    I don't mind some government subsidy to get things rolling, including use of government land that is substantially reduced rent for a while, but when there is no mechanism in the plan for the government to make some or all of that money back, then I have a problem.

    In this case, the government could have donated the use of the spaces and perhaps some seed money in return for a portion of the fees collected say, 5 years in the future. It is unlikely the government would have ended up in the black in the long term, but it at least is not bearing the entire burden of the costs while private companies get the profits.

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    5 years in the future these might be obsolete.

    Thus it should be a private risk and not a public one. By making it a private risk, the company doing the installations now has a motivation to market them, maintain them, keep them up to date with the latest technology, etc. Now that it is almost entirely a public expense (with any/all future profits flowing to private companies), there is none of that motivation and the maintenance and upkeep is at the mercy of the government's budgetary process. As I said, I support some seeding to get the things started, but beyond that it should be the purview of private industry.

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    I'll throw my two cents into the cup here. If you're going to allow the government to "seed" a potential industry with federal grants, subsidies, and so forth, there has to be public and Congressonal approval and voted on measures in place to make absolutely sure that assistance is not only severely limited monetarily but annually limited, and by that I mean the government completely shuts off the taps after, say, a five year period for each individual company.

    I'm also in favor of punishing companies who abuse any sort of government assistance by making them pay back the money and whatever else was taken at an extremely harsh intrest rate, say as high as even 50 percent.

    We used to do something not terribly unsimilar around the turn of the 20th century, and it needs to be put in place again to assure that taxpayer dollars are not misappropriated in supporting private industries (like we've seen recently) and that we don't sink deeper into fiscal black holes.

    Edited by black-knight
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    Electric cars still put wear and tear on the roads so they should be taxed on a per mile use to help pay for the roads since they do not use petrol

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    I'd say "per project" rather than "per company", but sure.

    Actually, if legislation similar to what I'm talking about were to be implemented, it's probably better to include both "per project" and "per company" in its context. I tend to feel that just saying "per project" is too open-ended and invites buisness entities (especially larger ones) to repeatedly use the system and would potentially increase the risk of misappropriation.

    Edited by black-knight
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    I'd say "per project" rather than "per company", but sure.

    Actually, if legislation similar to what I'm talking about were to be implemented, it's probably better to include both "per project" and "per company" in its context. I tend to feel that just saying "per project" is too open-ended and invites buisness entities (especially larger ones) to repeatedly use the system and would potentially increase the risk of misappropriation.

    Agreed, you need to make sure there are no grey areas that could be manipulated by the businesses.

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      A full-length panoramic glass roof extends the sweeping angle of the windshield and floods the interior of the I-PACE Concept with natural light. The glass integrates seamlessly into the interior thanks to a lozenge-patterned ceramic print that unites the roof with other interior surface finishes. At night, an array of LEDs embedded in the roof illuminate the patterned glass to create a stunning visual effect.
      BEAUTIFUL DETAILS
      The I-PACE Concept is very much a drivers’ car but the interior has been painstakingly crafted to ensure that all occupants share the sense of being in something special – that’s what being inside a Jaguar is all about. Luxurious, contemporary materials, perfectly executed surfaces and exquisite finishes are found throughout. Here are just some of them:
      Touchscreen interfaces and tactile rotary controllers with a distinctive knurled metal finish reflect the vehicle’s blend of cutting-edge technologies and traditional craftsmanship. The rotary controllers feature precision-milled aluminum encasing unique high-definition circular displays with variable haptic feedback setting to help the driver differentiate between modes  Laser-etched detailing on the instrument panel’s burl wood surface reads: “Lovingly crafted by Jaguar. Est. Coventry 1935”. The beautifully-crafted GPS coordinates locate the Jaguar design studio – birthplace of the I-PACE Concept.  The signature Jaguar lozenge pattern has been applied onto the seat cushions using an innovative laser-cutting process. The same effect can be found on the pedals and the center console surround.  Labels with Jaguar paw prints are stitched into the seams of the seats for a playful accent and symbolize the warmth and wit unique to the Jaguar brand.  The signature Jaguar lozenge pattern is photo-etched onto the MeridianTM audio system speaker grilles integrated into the doors. VERSATILITY AND EVERYDAY USABILITY
      The brief for the Jaguar I-PACE Concept was to create a performance SUV that is spacious, sporty and useable. The cab-forward layout creates unprecedented interior space that is far larger than is possible in vehicles powered by internal combustion.
      With no engine bay and a battery pack that sits flat between the axles, the cab-forward design’s long wheelbase and short overhangs enable a footprint of 184.25 in. (4,680mm) x 74.41in. (1,890mm) and a long wheelbase of 117.72 in. (2,990mm).
      "This is an uncompromised electric vehicle designed from a clean sheet of paper: we developed a new architecture and selected only the best technology available. The I-PACE Concept fully exploits the potential EVs can offer in space utilization, driving pleasure and performance."
      Dr Wolfgang Ziebart, Technical Design Director, Jaguar Land Rover
      With no transmission tunnel to accommodate, Jaguar designers used the free space to create an innovative 2.11-gal. (8-liter) storage area within the center console. With the traditional gear shifter also absent, the I-PACE Concept instead has smart storage space for phones, keys and other small items.
      Even with its raked rear glass the I-PACE Concept, features an 18.71 cu. ft. (530-liter) luggage compartment; the front luggage compartment under the hood offers an additional cubic foot (28-liters) of storage space.
      THE DIGITAL CAR
      The I-PACE Concept introduces a new intuitive ‘flightdeck’ approach for the controls interface. The design philosophy emphasizes controls that fall ergonomically to hand and technology that promotes driver engagement.
      The floating center console found in the I-PACE Concept is a key element in advancing cockpit ergonomics, utility and performance. The console rises to connect with the dashboard and ensconce the driver, and provides a level of mechanical connection with the vehicle by positioning gearshift functions on its metal struts.
      Information is shared with the driver with elegant simplicity. Graphic elements of the human machine interface (HMI) have an editorial, monochromatic feel with a warmer, more human focus, mirroring current technology trends. Lighter font weights and the sparing use of color are designed to both improve readability, communication and reduce the driver’s information workload.
      Touchscreens, intuitive rotary dials and multi-function buttons offer the perfect balance of tactile analogue controls and interactive digital interfaces, helping the driver concentrate on the road, not their fingers.
      The primary interface is a 10-inch TFT screen blended seamlessly into the surface of the center console.
      A separate, 5.5-inch secondary touchscreen is paired with two laser etched aluminum rotaries that encase vibrant circular HD displays. This allows occupants to configure infotainment and climate while keeping full screen information on the 10-inch display above.
      The I-PACE Concept also features a configurable 12-inch HD virtual instrument cluster and a full-color head-up display, providing the driver with the information they need when and where they need it.
      The I-PACE Concept introduces a new three-spoke steering wheel with multi-function capacitive switches. These remain invisible until illuminated, improving aesthetics and putting more functionality at the driver’s fingertips. To make them more tactile, they also feature a ‘micro-click’ haptic feedback when pressed. 

      Like the InControl Touch Pro infotainment system offered in the current line-up of Jaguar vehicles, the system in the I-PACE Concept is designed in-house around a powerful quad-core processor, a high- speed solid-state drive and an ultra-fast Ethernet network. Combined, they deliver exceptional performance, responsiveness and functionality.
      APPS AND CONNECTIVITY
      Just like the infotainment systems found in many Jaguar production cars, the I-PACE Concept features a Wi-Fi hotspot enabling occupants in every seat to stay connected and stream music, video and other data to their devices.
      The I-PACE Concept also enables occupants to use apps on their iOS® and AndroidTM smartphones through the vehicle’s main touchscreen using InControl Apps. The range of apps, optimized for in-vehicle use to reduce driver distraction, is growing all the time and now includes a unique Spotify app which is the first to offer recommended playlists on the Spotify home screen. Users can get personalized ‘Just for You’ playlists which contain recommended tracks, meaning less time is spent scrolling though menus searching for music.
      PERFORMANCE AND DYNAMICS
      The I-PACE Concept delivers the driver-focused performance and response Jaguar is renowned for thanks to electric motors positioned on the front and rear axles; together these deliver 400hp and 516-lb ft of instant torque.
      Electric all-wheel drive helps the I-PACE Concept put power down and maintain traction on a variety of surfaces and weather conditions. Response is immediate and the system provides exceptional control over the front and rear torque distribution, responding immediately to driver inputs, road conditions and vehicle characteristics.
      "Electric motors provide immediate response with no lag, no gearshifts and no interruptions. Their superior torque delivery compared to internal combustion engines transforms the driving experience.
      With 516-lb ft of torque and the traction benefits of all-wheel drive, the I-PACE Concept accelerates from 0-60mph in around four seconds."
      Ian Hoban, Vehicle Line Director, Jaguar Land Rover
      The driving dynamics and responsiveness of the I-PACE Concept are further enhanced due to the battery’s ideal position beneath the floor and between the axles; lowering the center of gravity and reducing body roll.
      Jaguar Land Rover engineers designed and developed the synchronous, permanent magnet electric motors in-house to achieve the most compact design, greatest efficiency and maximum power density. They have an outer diameter of just 9.21in. (234mm) and are only 19.68in. (500mm) long.
      Rather than the conventional, offset configuration which places the transmission in front of the motor, the I-PACE concept features a more space-efficient concentric layout, which contributes directly to the excellent ground clearance and spacious interior.
      Electrification has a secondary benefit too; by selecting a higher level of regenerative braking, in stop- and-go traffic for instance, the driver can drive mostly using just the accelerator, with less need to apply the brakes to slow the car.
      To ensure drivers enjoy and exploit the performance of the I-PACE Concept in a variety of weathers and road conditions, the electric all-wheel drive system is enhanced with Jaguar traction technologies, including All Surface Progress Control (ASPC) and Adaptive Surface Response (AdSR).
      CHASSIS DESIGN
      The Jaguar F-PACE has been widely recognized for its balance of ride, handling and refinement, and the I-PACE Concept will do the same. The sophisticated suspension design, the benefits of a low center of gravity and incorporating all of the lessons learnt developing the F-TYPE and F-PACE will set the I-PACE Concept apart from all other electric vehicles. 

      The front suspension system relies on the same double-wishbone configuration proven in the F-TYPE and F-PACE because Jaguar believes there is no better system.
      "When you get behind the wheel, the driving experience reflects the dynamic design of the I-PACE Concept. It's a Jaguar through and through and we will prove that a zero emission vehicle can be a true driver's car.
      We proved with the F-PACE that a performance crossover can deliver the agility, connected feel and ride quality you'd expect from a Jaguar. Now we're going to do the same with the I-PACE Concept: this will be the first electric vehicle developed for enthusiasts who love driving."
      Mike Cross, Chief Engineer of Vehicle Integrity, Jaguar Land Rover
      The high camber stiffness afforded by the lightweight aluminum double wishbone design is fundamental to agility and responsiveness – lateral forces at the tires’ contact patches build very quickly, and the steering responds immediately and precisely to the driver’s every input.
      And because of the superior roll camber gain characteristics inherent in the double wishbone system, the tires’ contact patches are better maintained throughout the suspension’s full range of movement, helping to optimize traction.
      INTEGRAL LINK
      Integral Link suspension design, proven in the Jaguar XE and XF sedans, and now the F-PACE, was the natural choice for the rear suspension in the I-PACE Concept. Its sophistication eclipses other multilink rear suspension designs to offer an exceptional balance of ride, handling and refinement. Integral Link enables chassis engineers to tune longitudinal and lateral stiffness independently. This means freedom to fully optimize comfort and dynamics attributes without the one compromising the other.
      As a result, the bushings which manage longitudinal forces can be made softer and therefore the ride is smoother and impact absorption quieter. The bushings which manage lateral forces can be made stiffer for more precise handling and even greater responsiveness.
      The Integral Link suspension is also extremely space-efficient. Combined with the compact rear electric motor, this contributes to the large luggage compartment volume and excellent ground clearance.
      ELECTRIFICATION AND ZERO EMISSIONS
      For most customers, the I-PACE Concept will be the first electric car they have owned. Research and innovations by the engineering and design teams have simplified the ownership experience and lowered the barriers to adoption. The electric motors, battery pack and management systems give the best possible performance and a useful range for most daily journeys.
      The range of the I-PACE Concept is targeted to be around 220 miles on the US EPA cycle. The battery can be charged at the growing network of public charging stations, a dedicated wall box at home, or simply using conventional domestic power sockets.
      Charging is easy and quick. An 80 percent charge can be achieved in 90 minutes and 100 percent in just over two hours using 50kW DC fast charging.
      “Electric vehicles are inevitable – Jaguar will make them desirable. Zero emission cars are here to stay and the I-PACE Concept is at the cutting edge of the electric vehicle revolution.
      As the charging infrastructure continues to develop globally cars like the I-PACE Concept will make drivers appreciate that an EV can be rewarding and practical enough to drive every day.”
      Ian Hoban, Vehicle Line Director, Jaguar Land Rover
      Energy storage in the I-PACE Concept is a liquid-cooled 90kWh lithium-ion battery pack, designed and developed in-house. The battery’s housing is lightweight aluminum and forms an integral part of the body structure of the I-PACE Concept.
      The battery uses pouch cells selected for their energy density, superior thermal performance due to lower internal resistance, and because of the design freedom they afford. Unlike some competing cell formats, pouch cells also offer excellent future development potential, especially in terms of energy density – this will enable greater range for a given size of battery, or will deliver similar range to today but from a smaller, lighter pack.
      The pack is liquid-cooled using a dedicated two-mode cooling circuit. In moderate ambient temperatures the battery improves efficiency by relying only on a radiator to remove the heat generated by the cells. At higher temperatures a chiller linked to the vehicle’s main air conditioning system provides greater cooling capacity to keep the battery in optimum condition.
      Energy efficiency is further enhanced by integrating a heat pump into the climate control system. The heat pump is far more efficient than conventional electric heaters because it uses energy from the outside air to heat the cabin rather than relying solely on drawing current from the battery; helping to extend the range of the battery even in freezing winter conditions.

      View full article
    • By William Maley
      It is no secret that Jaguar Land Rover has been hard at work on developing electric vehicles. For the past few months, we have been reporting that the British automaker will be launching an electric crossover within the next couple of years. Last night at an event in Los Angeles, Jaguar unveiled the I-Pace concept. This is a preview of a production model that will be arriving in 2018.
      Depending on the angle, the I-Pace either looks like a crossover or hatchback. But one item is clear with the I-Pace concept's design, it borrows a fair amount from the C-X75 concept. From the heavily sculpted hood, raked windshield, and rectangular grille, it is clear that the C-X75 will live on in spirit in future Jaguar designs. Inside, the I-Pace features a set of sport seats, a number of screens, and a panoramic roof. Open the rear hatch and you'll have 18.7 cubic feet of space.
      The I-Pace rides on a dedicated electric vehicle platform. This clean sheet design allows Jaguar to package the electric powertrain while retaining a large amount of passenger space. An electric motor is mounted in each axle and is capable of producing 200 horsepower and 258 pound-feet of torque. Total output stands at 400 horsepower and 516 pound-feet of torque. Jaguar says the I-Pace can reach 60 mph in 4 seconds. A 90 kilowatt-hour lithium-ion battery pack provides a range of 220 miles. 
      Interestingly, Jaguar is taking a page from Tesla's playbook. The British automaker is starting to take reservations on their site for the production model.
      Source: Jaguar
      Press Release is on Page 2
      JAGUAR REVEALS THE I-PACE CONCEPT: THE ELECTRIC PERFORMANCE SUV
      – The I-PACE Concept previews the first-ever electric vehicle from Jaguar
      – The production version will be revealed late 2017 and available in 2018
      – The I-PACE Concept is an electric performance SUV with a bold, cab-forward design that combines a supercar silhouette with sports car driving characteristics and five-seat SUV versatility.
      – Liquid-cooled 90kWh lithium-ion battery pack delivers a targeted range of approximately 220 miles on EPA test cycles
      – Synchronous permanent magnet electric motors positioned at the front and rear axles generate a combined output of 400hp and 516- lb-ft. of instant torque, delivering sports car acceleration and the traction benefits of all-wheel drive
      – A new electric vehicle architecture enabled Jaguar designers and engineers to tear up the rule book on vehicle layout
      – Optimized aerodynamics deliver a drag coefficient of just 0.29 and inspired new design features that reflect the vehicle’s power and performance
      – The interior blends British craftsmanship with cutting-edge Jaguar technology and premium materials, showcasing a vision for the brand’s electric luxury future.
      – Lightweight slimline seats and a ‘Sports Command’ driving position deliver a sports car-like sense of connection with the road
      – The low center of gravity combined with sophisticated double wishbone front and Integral Link rear suspension delivers Jaguar characteristic ride and handling with outstanding refinement
      – A blend of touchscreens, capacitive switches and tactile analog controls help drivers to manage in-car information more intuitively
      (LOS ANGELES) – November 14, 2016 – Today, Jaguar revealed its I-PACE Concept vehicle, an all-electric performance SUV(1). The concept previews the first-ever electric vehicle from Jaguar and features a targeted range of 220 miles on the EPA test cycle.
      “The I-PACE Concept is a radical departure for electric vehicles. It represents the next generation of battery electric vehicle design. It’s a dramatic, future-facing design – the product of Jaguar DNA matched with beautiful, premium details and British craftsmanship.
      This isn’t just a concept. It is a preview of a five-seat production car that will be on the road in 2018. This will be Jaguar’s first-ever battery-powered electric vehicle and opens a new chapter in the history of our legendary brand.”
      Ian Callum, Director of Design, Jaguar
      TEARING UP THE RULE BOOK
      The Jaguar I-PACE Concept is one of the most visually arresting concepts ever produced by Jaguar. Taking full advantage of the packaging freedom offered by electrification, the design and engineering teams took the opportunity to rethink the vehicle’s overall proportions.
      The result is an exceptional vehicle that combines an advanced cab-forward design inspired by the Jaguar C-X75 supercar – incorporating the smooth silhouette of a coupe, in a five-seat SUV. The I-PACE Concept embodies the technological advances under its skin – and the Jaguar design team’s belief that consumers are ready for bolder electric vehicle designs.
      “The opportunities offered by an electric powertrain are huge. Electric vehicles offer designers much greater freedom, and it is an opportunity we must grasp. This is why the I-PACE Concept is developed on a new architecture which has been designed to optimize electric vehicle performance, aerodynamics and interior space.
      With the I-PACE Concept, the revolution is in the profile, not the design language. The profile is possible because this car is electric. It’s not just that we wanted to create something that was very different from anything else we do: we wanted the design to celebrate the new battery electric technology.
      I was determined from the very beginning of this project to create a design which reflected this change in the mechanics of the car. This is what led to the sporty cab-forward profile rather than a car with a hood and an engine.”
      Ian Callum, Director of Design, Jaguar
      The electric drive system afforded the design team additional freedom to achieve the dynamic proportions on the I-PACE Concept. Leveraging the technological possibilities of electric driving, the I-PACE Concept introduces big design changes and finds fresh expression for the premium, personal touches and British craftsmanship Jaguar is known for.
      Without an internal combustion engine and transmission tunnel to package, the design of the I-PACE Concept brings the cabin forward, extends the wheelbase and shortens the overhangs. This enables the silhouette to become more aerodynamic and the haunches to develop more powerful proportions. It also enlarges the interior space and improves vehicle dynamics and visibility.
      As a result, the profile of the I-PACE Concept has more in common with the C-X75 mid-engine supercar than conventional SUVs. The evidence is clear in the cab-forward proportions, the dynamic heart line, curve of the front fenders, powerful proportions of the rear haunches and the large, purposeful wheels. Despite this, the overall footprint of the I-PACE Concept is as compact as a conventional mid-sized SUV. The long, 117.72 inch (2,990mm) wheelbase creates a voluminous interior with a level of rear knee room usually only found in full-size SUVs and luxury sedans.
      SIDE VIEW
      With its streamlined profile, sweeping lines, large wheels and muscular rear haunches, the I-PACE Concept represents a new generation of electric vehicle. Bringing together hallmarks of the Jaguar brand, but featuring new lines made possible by the electric powertrain; the design of the I-PACE Concept features a dynamic aesthetic that expresses its performance, innovation and style.
      The long wheelbase as well as short front and rear overhangs help to deliver a coupe-like roofline. The cabin sits low between sets of sweeping fenders, creating a sense of movement; giving the body a fast, tapering waistline. The dynamic window lines further enhance the sports car-inspired looks. The cab- forward design is accentuated by the windshield’s steep angle and heavily curved glass, flowing down into a low hood that adds to the sense of supercar style.
      The muscular wheel arches are sculpted around breathtaking 23-inch Nighthawk wheels finished in Technical Grey with Gloss Black inserts and feature a beautiful diamond-turned pattern, both of which underscore a sense of purpose for the I-PACE Concept. The dynamic intent of the wheels is further enhanced by bespoke 265/35/R23 tires that feature a unique tread pattern. The powerful rear haunches add to the muscular stance, further enhancing its sports car-like poise.
      Close work between the Design and Aerodynamics teams not only achieved a drag coefficient of just 0.29 Cd, it also inspired a technological edge to the concept’s styling. Flush door handles help to reduce drag by only sliding out when activated. Aerodynamically optimized side skirts also blend form and function by channeling air more efficiently around the wheels.
      FRONT VIEW
      The design of the I-PACE Concept communicates muscular performance. The low hood and wide curving wheel arches combine to marry sports car aesthetics and SUV presence. A broad, distinctive grille with a hexagonal grid in gloss black retains a key element of Jaguar design DNA while also providing aerodynamic and cooling benefits.
      Airflow also passes through the C-X75-derived hood scoop, helping to reduce drag. Slimline full LED headlights incorporate a signature Double-J daytime running light motif and help to further emphasize the vehicle’s clean lines.
      REAR VIEW
      The sharp styling of the rear of the I-PACE Concept provides a clear indication of the vehicle’s dynamic potential and efficiency. A slender composite spoiler reduces lift at higher speeds without generating drag and has the secondary benefit of enhancing the vehicle’s sporting character.
      The steeply sloped rear window aids the vehicle’s aerodynamics and incorporates an advanced hydrophobic coating on the glass, eliminating the visual clutter of a rear wiper. The shape and design of the rear window glass are in direct contrast with the squared-off design of the rear lower valance and extended rear three-quarter fenders; projecting power, but also benefitting from improved aerodynamics which enhance overall efficiency.
      Relentless design optimization ensures that form and function work together beautifully. The bold styling accentuated by the vehicle’s short rear overhang and prominent wheels, also encourages air to cling longer to the vehicle, stabilizing airflow at speed.
      Ingenious rear vents serve the dual purpose of providing a clever visual replacement for tailpipes, and channeling turbulent air from the rear wheel arches into the vehicle’s wake, making the car more aerodynamically efficient. A rear diffuser also contributes to aerodynamic efficiency while simultaneously enhancing the low-slung stance of the I-PACE Concept.
      The LED tail lamps, while similar to those on other Jaguar models, square off the roundel graphic for an edgier and more technical look. A broad, high-mounted LED stop lamp is integrated invisibly beneath the spoiler, visible only when the driver brakes.
      INTERIOR DESIGN
      The five-seat I-PACE Concept is a clear statement of plans for a production Jaguar model with future- focused design, pervading the open, spacious interior. It also showcases a blend of new technologies and traditional materials that characterize a vision for what a Jaguar electric luxury vehicle could be.
      The I-PACE Concept is a perfect example of just how much interior space the Jaguar cab-forward design and electric powertrain creates.
      “Our brief was to create a spacious performance SUV that could comfortably carry five people. Otherwise we had a clean sheet of paper. To deliver this, we embraced the freedom that electrification offers designers.
      The electric powertrain and the cab-forward layout position the driver further forward, increasing the space for row-two occupants. This also allows a luggage compartment volume of almost 19 cu. ft. without compromising the dramatic silhouette.”
      Ian Callum, Director of Design, Jaguar 

      Jaguar cockpits have always been driver focused; the I-PACE Concept is no different. Inside, the cockpit is complemented by intuitive interface designs and advanced materials that reflect Jaguar craftsmanship in new and innovative ways.
      The driver and passengers sit lower in the I-PACE Concept than in conventional SUVs, while slimline seats position the hips lower in relation to the heels; this ‘Sports Command’ driving position helps to enhance a sense of connection with the road.
      The cab-forward design of the I-PACE Concept, low hood and short overhangs provide the driver with exceptional visibility, view of the road and the vehicle’s surroundings. A little like the Jaguar E-Type, the front fenders beautifully frame the road ahead, enabling drivers to use them to sight a line through corners with confidence.
      From the moment the door opens, the feeling of interior spaciousness is clear. Entering the I-PACE Concept, the driver can view the entire width of the flat floor through a cantilevered center console, helping to deliver an immediate sense of the space and openness inside.
      The instrument panel is positioned low and its simple horizontal lines and minimalist switchgear help further emphasize the interior’s size. The center console cossets the driver, with two ‘looping’ metal struts beautifully framing the access to a storage area under the control panel – a motif that will recur in other future Jaguar vehicles.
      These struts also enable a tactile replacement to the traditional gear shifter. Buttons integrated into the strut allow the driver to reach down and select forward, neutral, park or reverse intuitively with a simple press of the thumb.
      Throughout the interior of the I-PACE Concept, Jaguar carefully selected high quality, natural materials delivering high standards of craftsmanship and a pervasive sense of both luxury and sustainability. The interior’s finishes create rich textural contrasts. Windsor leather covers the front of the seats, laser-cut with the signature Jaguar lozenge motif, sewn with contrasting twin-needle stitching and edged with colored carbon fiber trim. The seat backs are finished in Moonstone Alcantara.
      The doors feature a similarly tonal layering of aluminum, Alcantara and dark, unvarnished open pore walnut veneers. Fine details such as the audio speaker grilles are integrated into the door handle finishers and feature a jewel-like, 3D design that also references the Jaguar lozenge motif.
      A full-length panoramic glass roof extends the sweeping angle of the windshield and floods the interior of the I-PACE Concept with natural light. The glass integrates seamlessly into the interior thanks to a lozenge-patterned ceramic print that unites the roof with other interior surface finishes. At night, an array of LEDs embedded in the roof illuminate the patterned glass to create a stunning visual effect.
      BEAUTIFUL DETAILS
      The I-PACE Concept is very much a drivers’ car but the interior has been painstakingly crafted to ensure that all occupants share the sense of being in something special – that’s what being inside a Jaguar is all about. Luxurious, contemporary materials, perfectly executed surfaces and exquisite finishes are found throughout. Here are just some of them:
      Touchscreen interfaces and tactile rotary controllers with a distinctive knurled metal finish reflect the vehicle’s blend of cutting-edge technologies and traditional craftsmanship. The rotary controllers feature precision-milled aluminum encasing unique high-definition circular displays with variable haptic feedback setting to help the driver differentiate between modes  Laser-etched detailing on the instrument panel’s burl wood surface reads: “Lovingly crafted by Jaguar. Est. Coventry 1935”. The beautifully-crafted GPS coordinates locate the Jaguar design studio – birthplace of the I-PACE Concept.  The signature Jaguar lozenge pattern has been applied onto the seat cushions using an innovative laser-cutting process. The same effect can be found on the pedals and the center console surround.  Labels with Jaguar paw prints are stitched into the seams of the seats for a playful accent and symbolize the warmth and wit unique to the Jaguar brand.  The signature Jaguar lozenge pattern is photo-etched onto the MeridianTM audio system speaker grilles integrated into the doors. VERSATILITY AND EVERYDAY USABILITY
      The brief for the Jaguar I-PACE Concept was to create a performance SUV that is spacious, sporty and useable. The cab-forward layout creates unprecedented interior space that is far larger than is possible in vehicles powered by internal combustion.
      With no engine bay and a battery pack that sits flat between the axles, the cab-forward design’s long wheelbase and short overhangs enable a footprint of 184.25 in. (4,680mm) x 74.41in. (1,890mm) and a long wheelbase of 117.72 in. (2,990mm).
      "This is an uncompromised electric vehicle designed from a clean sheet of paper: we developed a new architecture and selected only the best technology available. The I-PACE Concept fully exploits the potential EVs can offer in space utilization, driving pleasure and performance."
      Dr Wolfgang Ziebart, Technical Design Director, Jaguar Land Rover
      With no transmission tunnel to accommodate, Jaguar designers used the free space to create an innovative 2.11-gal. (8-liter) storage area within the center console. With the traditional gear shifter also absent, the I-PACE Concept instead has smart storage space for phones, keys and other small items.
      Even with its raked rear glass the I-PACE Concept, features an 18.71 cu. ft. (530-liter) luggage compartment; the front luggage compartment under the hood offers an additional cubic foot (28-liters) of storage space.
      THE DIGITAL CAR
      The I-PACE Concept introduces a new intuitive ‘flightdeck’ approach for the controls interface. The design philosophy emphasizes controls that fall ergonomically to hand and technology that promotes driver engagement.
      The floating center console found in the I-PACE Concept is a key element in advancing cockpit ergonomics, utility and performance. The console rises to connect with the dashboard and ensconce the driver, and provides a level of mechanical connection with the vehicle by positioning gearshift functions on its metal struts.
      Information is shared with the driver with elegant simplicity. Graphic elements of the human machine interface (HMI) have an editorial, monochromatic feel with a warmer, more human focus, mirroring current technology trends. Lighter font weights and the sparing use of color are designed to both improve readability, communication and reduce the driver’s information workload.
      Touchscreens, intuitive rotary dials and multi-function buttons offer the perfect balance of tactile analogue controls and interactive digital interfaces, helping the driver concentrate on the road, not their fingers.
      The primary interface is a 10-inch TFT screen blended seamlessly into the surface of the center console.
      A separate, 5.5-inch secondary touchscreen is paired with two laser etched aluminum rotaries that encase vibrant circular HD displays. This allows occupants to configure infotainment and climate while keeping full screen information on the 10-inch display above.
      The I-PACE Concept also features a configurable 12-inch HD virtual instrument cluster and a full-color head-up display, providing the driver with the information they need when and where they need it.
      The I-PACE Concept introduces a new three-spoke steering wheel with multi-function capacitive switches. These remain invisible until illuminated, improving aesthetics and putting more functionality at the driver’s fingertips. To make them more tactile, they also feature a ‘micro-click’ haptic feedback when pressed. 

      Like the InControl Touch Pro infotainment system offered in the current line-up of Jaguar vehicles, the system in the I-PACE Concept is designed in-house around a powerful quad-core processor, a high- speed solid-state drive and an ultra-fast Ethernet network. Combined, they deliver exceptional performance, responsiveness and functionality.
      APPS AND CONNECTIVITY
      Just like the infotainment systems found in many Jaguar production cars, the I-PACE Concept features a Wi-Fi hotspot enabling occupants in every seat to stay connected and stream music, video and other data to their devices.
      The I-PACE Concept also enables occupants to use apps on their iOS® and AndroidTM smartphones through the vehicle’s main touchscreen using InControl Apps. The range of apps, optimized for in-vehicle use to reduce driver distraction, is growing all the time and now includes a unique Spotify app which is the first to offer recommended playlists on the Spotify home screen. Users can get personalized ‘Just for You’ playlists which contain recommended tracks, meaning less time is spent scrolling though menus searching for music.
      PERFORMANCE AND DYNAMICS
      The I-PACE Concept delivers the driver-focused performance and response Jaguar is renowned for thanks to electric motors positioned on the front and rear axles; together these deliver 400hp and 516-lb ft of instant torque.
      Electric all-wheel drive helps the I-PACE Concept put power down and maintain traction on a variety of surfaces and weather conditions. Response is immediate and the system provides exceptional control over the front and rear torque distribution, responding immediately to driver inputs, road conditions and vehicle characteristics.
      "Electric motors provide immediate response with no lag, no gearshifts and no interruptions. Their superior torque delivery compared to internal combustion engines transforms the driving experience.
      With 516-lb ft of torque and the traction benefits of all-wheel drive, the I-PACE Concept accelerates from 0-60mph in around four seconds."
      Ian Hoban, Vehicle Line Director, Jaguar Land Rover
      The driving dynamics and responsiveness of the I-PACE Concept are further enhanced due to the battery’s ideal position beneath the floor and between the axles; lowering the center of gravity and reducing body roll.
      Jaguar Land Rover engineers designed and developed the synchronous, permanent magnet electric motors in-house to achieve the most compact design, greatest efficiency and maximum power density. They have an outer diameter of just 9.21in. (234mm) and are only 19.68in. (500mm) long.
      Rather than the conventional, offset configuration which places the transmission in front of the motor, the I-PACE concept features a more space-efficient concentric layout, which contributes directly to the excellent ground clearance and spacious interior.
      Electrification has a secondary benefit too; by selecting a higher level of regenerative braking, in stop- and-go traffic for instance, the driver can drive mostly using just the accelerator, with less need to apply the brakes to slow the car.
      To ensure drivers enjoy and exploit the performance of the I-PACE Concept in a variety of weathers and road conditions, the electric all-wheel drive system is enhanced with Jaguar traction technologies, including All Surface Progress Control (ASPC) and Adaptive Surface Response (AdSR).
      CHASSIS DESIGN
      The Jaguar F-PACE has been widely recognized for its balance of ride, handling and refinement, and the I-PACE Concept will do the same. The sophisticated suspension design, the benefits of a low center of gravity and incorporating all of the lessons learnt developing the F-TYPE and F-PACE will set the I-PACE Concept apart from all other electric vehicles. 

      The front suspension system relies on the same double-wishbone configuration proven in the F-TYPE and F-PACE because Jaguar believes there is no better system.
      "When you get behind the wheel, the driving experience reflects the dynamic design of the I-PACE Concept. It's a Jaguar through and through and we will prove that a zero emission vehicle can be a true driver's car.
      We proved with the F-PACE that a performance crossover can deliver the agility, connected feel and ride quality you'd expect from a Jaguar. Now we're going to do the same with the I-PACE Concept: this will be the first electric vehicle developed for enthusiasts who love driving."
      Mike Cross, Chief Engineer of Vehicle Integrity, Jaguar Land Rover
      The high camber stiffness afforded by the lightweight aluminum double wishbone design is fundamental to agility and responsiveness – lateral forces at the tires’ contact patches build very quickly, and the steering responds immediately and precisely to the driver’s every input.
      And because of the superior roll camber gain characteristics inherent in the double wishbone system, the tires’ contact patches are better maintained throughout the suspension’s full range of movement, helping to optimize traction.
      INTEGRAL LINK
      Integral Link suspension design, proven in the Jaguar XE and XF sedans, and now the F-PACE, was the natural choice for the rear suspension in the I-PACE Concept. Its sophistication eclipses other multilink rear suspension designs to offer an exceptional balance of ride, handling and refinement. Integral Link enables chassis engineers to tune longitudinal and lateral stiffness independently. This means freedom to fully optimize comfort and dynamics attributes without the one compromising the other.
      As a result, the bushings which manage longitudinal forces can be made softer and therefore the ride is smoother and impact absorption quieter. The bushings which manage lateral forces can be made stiffer for more precise handling and even greater responsiveness.
      The Integral Link suspension is also extremely space-efficient. Combined with the compact rear electric motor, this contributes to the large luggage compartment volume and excellent ground clearance.
      ELECTRIFICATION AND ZERO EMISSIONS
      For most customers, the I-PACE Concept will be the first electric car they have owned. Research and innovations by the engineering and design teams have simplified the ownership experience and lowered the barriers to adoption. The electric motors, battery pack and management systems give the best possible performance and a useful range for most daily journeys.
      The range of the I-PACE Concept is targeted to be around 220 miles on the US EPA cycle. The battery can be charged at the growing network of public charging stations, a dedicated wall box at home, or simply using conventional domestic power sockets.
      Charging is easy and quick. An 80 percent charge can be achieved in 90 minutes and 100 percent in just over two hours using 50kW DC fast charging.
      “Electric vehicles are inevitable – Jaguar will make them desirable. Zero emission cars are here to stay and the I-PACE Concept is at the cutting edge of the electric vehicle revolution.
      As the charging infrastructure continues to develop globally cars like the I-PACE Concept will make drivers appreciate that an EV can be rewarding and practical enough to drive every day.”
      Ian Hoban, Vehicle Line Director, Jaguar Land Rover
      Energy storage in the I-PACE Concept is a liquid-cooled 90kWh lithium-ion battery pack, designed and developed in-house. The battery’s housing is lightweight aluminum and forms an integral part of the body structure of the I-PACE Concept.
      The battery uses pouch cells selected for their energy density, superior thermal performance due to lower internal resistance, and because of the design freedom they afford. Unlike some competing cell formats, pouch cells also offer excellent future development potential, especially in terms of energy density – this will enable greater range for a given size of battery, or will deliver similar range to today but from a smaller, lighter pack.
      The pack is liquid-cooled using a dedicated two-mode cooling circuit. In moderate ambient temperatures the battery improves efficiency by relying only on a radiator to remove the heat generated by the cells. At higher temperatures a chiller linked to the vehicle’s main air conditioning system provides greater cooling capacity to keep the battery in optimum condition.
      Energy efficiency is further enhanced by integrating a heat pump into the climate control system. The heat pump is far more efficient than conventional electric heaters because it uses energy from the outside air to heat the cabin rather than relying solely on drawing current from the battery; helping to extend the range of the battery even in freezing winter conditions.
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