Staff Writer - CheersandGears.com
November 29, 2012
Mazda had quite the showing today at the L.A. Auto Show, they introduced both the new Mazda6 and refreshed CX-9 (New front end and some interior tweaks) to North America. That wouldn't be the big story though, it would be some engine announcements that were the stars of Mazda's press conference.
First up is the 2014 CX-5 which will now come with a optional 2.5L SKYACTIV-G engine for the Touring and Grand Touring models. The 2.5L SKYACTIV-G produces 184 HP and 185 lb-ft of torque going through only a six-speed automatic. Fuel economy is rated at 25 City/32 Highway for the FWD model and 24 City/30 Highway for the AWD model.
Next is the 2014 Mazda6. When it goes on sale in January, it will come with a 2.5L SKYACTIV-G producing 189 HP and 189 lb-ft of torque. Later in the year, the 6 will be the first Mazda vehicle in North America to come equipped with a diesel. The diesel engine is a twin-turbo 2.2L SKYACTIV-D. Mazda isn't revealing specs about the new diesel engine.
Both engines in the Mazda6 will come with a regenerative braking system called i-ELOOP.
Press Release for the CX-5 Is on Page 2, Mazda6 is on Page 3
2014 MAZDA CX-5
- Mazda's Compact SUV Entry Boasts New 2.5L Engine, Added Safety Features -
LOS ANGELES (November 29, 2012) – With its class-leading fuel economy, head-turning design
and better-than-the-rest handling, the 2013 CX-5 seemed destined to be a worldwide winner for
Mazda Motor Corporation (MC) when it was unveiled in Los Angeles last year. And it has been,
and still continues to be. With SKYACTIV® TECHNOLOGY, the brand's breakthrough
engineering and manufacturing approach to its next generation of vehicles, the miles-per-gallon
(MPG), lighter-on-the-feet boost to its lineup saw the manufacturer increasing production of its SKYACTIV engines two-fold. The SKYACTIV TECHNOLOGY savvy CX-5 again returns to Los
Angeles to make its 2014 model year North American debut and features a powerful new
SKYACTIV-G 2.5-liter gasoline engine as well as the all-new Smart City Brake Support (SCBS)
"The ongoing success of the CX-5 is something we were hoping for and received in spades,"
said Jim O'Sullivan, president and CEO, Mazda North American Operations (MNAO). "From a
clean-sheet-of-paper approach, CX-5 dove head first into the competitive compact SUV segment and created quite a splash. The overwhelmingly positive response from consumers and critics alike are testaments that performance and practicality can be a winning formula without
On sale since late February, CX-5's year-to-date numbers make up nearly 15 percent of MNAO's
total sales and are outpaced only by Mazda's perennial global best-seller, the Mazda3 compact
car. The 2014 CX-5 will go on sale in North America in January 2013.
Engineered for the Real World
No one wants to drive a slug, but a sports car doesn't fit the everyday needs of most consumers, nor are such horsepower-bloated play things the most affordable of toys. But fun never had a sensible bone in its hyperactive, excitement-seeking body – until SKYACTIV TECHNOLOGY.
Developed solely by Mazda, the brand that invented Zoom-Zoom for all, SKYACTIV
TECHNOLOGY is a deeply imbedded philosophy that obtaining more power, more torque and
more MPG can be had by creating overall vehicle efficiency and still be offered at a dollar-sign amount attainable by the majority of the car-buying population. What is lost in the process of improving engineering numbers? Nothing. Safety, spaciousness, style – still all there. And better than before.
Upon entering the marketplace, CX-5 was an all-new, true-to-segment entry into the compact
SUV circle. Outfitted with a SKYACTIV-G 2.0-liter gasoline engine for all three trim levels –
Sport, Touring and Grand Touring – the engine and its matching SKYACTIV transmissions were
enough to offer consumers best-in-class combined fuel economy on all models. With 155
horsepower at 6,000 rpm and 150 lb-ft of torque delivered at 4,000 rpm, enough get-up-and-go oomph delivered dynamics that any enthusiast could appreciate. The standard push-button start was all it took to get the revving going.
For 2014, the race-car high 13:1 compression ratio and uniquely crafted 4-2-1 exhaust system
remain but can now be paired with an all-new SKYACTIV-G 2.5-liter gasoline engine for Touring
and Grand Touring models. Boasting nearly 19 percent more horsepower and 23 percent more
torque, the SKYACTIV-G 2.5L still maintains the fuel economy threshold set by the SKYACTIV-G
2.0L in its segment-leading MPG. Redline is achieved at 6,800 rpm in the 2.0-liter and at 6,500 rpm in the 2.5-liter engine.
All CX-5 Sport models will be equipped with the SKYACTIV-G 2.0L engine and offer an EPArated fuel economy of 26 city/35 highway/29 combined MPG when mated to the SKYACTIV-MT
six-speed manual transmission, or 26 city/32 highway/29 combined MPG when optioned with the
SKYACTIV-Drive six-speed automatic transmission. When equipped with Mazda's Active
Torque-Split All-Wheel Drive system (AT models only), fuel economy remains a highly-efficient
25 city/31 highway/28 combined MPG. At 35 MPG, CX-5 still holds the title of highest highway
MPG of any SUV in North America, hybrid or not.
Only available with an automatic transmission, Touring and Grand Touring models will receive
the SKYACTIV-G 2.5L engine. Touting 184 horsepower at 5,700 rpm and 185 lb-ft of torque at
3,250 rpm, the CX-5 becomes one of the more powerful non-turbocharged compact SUVs in its
class. The EPA-tested numbers reflect minimal sacrifice in efficiency with 25 city/32 highway
MPG for front-wheel-drive (FWD) vehicles and 24 city/30 highway MPG for AWD vehicles.2012
Fuel tank capacity in FWD models is 14.8 gallons while AWD vehicles feature a slightly larger
15.3-gallon tank. This difference is to ensure that regardless of a consumer's choice of vehicle, the segment-leading driving range will remain similar across the model line at about 430 miles. Overpowering most of its competitors as well as outlasting them, the 2014 CX-5 truly knows how to move forward and go further.
But fuel efficiency and power can't be had with simple under-the-hood magic tricks. By crafting efficiency into not just a lighter engine and shorter shift strokes but also into every panel and every bolt, SKYACTIV TECHNOLOGY showcases light weighting at its svelte best. With a starting weight of 3,194 lbs., a CX-5 Sport FWD with SKYACTIV-MT weighs less than some
compact cars, such as the MAZDASPEED3 (3,281 lbs.). When fully equipped, a Grand Touring
AWD model weighs in at 3,532 lbs. Even with a trim frame and smaller footprint, all CX-5 models offer a 2000-pound towing capacity.
Mazda's current design language known as KODO, or "Soul of Motion," is as inspiring as the
very subject it draws inspiration from: nature, in its most calm and most furious. The ability to evoke a serenity that also behooves excitement is the essence of KODO. Calm, collected and coolly confident, the CX-5 entered a segment devoid of signature character lines, a vehicle class better known more for its Point A-to-Point B mannerisms and bulk-item cargo volume than for its style palate. As the first production Mazda to fully incorporate a soul of motion, CX-5 is convincingly striking in comparison to its peers.
Its sculptured body is taut and compact yet muscular. Shapely front and rear fenders hug the
sporty SUV's 17- and 19-inch rubber-and-rim pairings, projecting a brash, athletic swagger. With brawny alloy wheels as standard equipment, Sport and Touring models feature refined 17-inch aluminum alloy discs wrapped in P225/65R17 Yokohama all-season tires. Grand Touring
models ride on aggressive 19-inch aluminum alloy wheels outfitted with P225/55R19 Toyo® A23
In the front, black trapezoidal grille patterns add muscular depth while the new familial five-point "signature wing" extends its striking chrome into the angular wraparound headlamps. Detailed precision is magnified as a single sweeping stroke bridges the lower corners with sleek, artistic expression. Atop the strong fenders begins a pronounced crease, which curves and twistingly darts across the side panels, eventually readjusting to wrap itself around stylized tail lamps.
All this expression of motion in the sheet metal, the rounded surfaces befitted with edgy creases, are as much for finesse as they are for function. The sharply raked A-pillar is matched by the angles of the fastback design of the C-pillar and rear window, topping a dynamic profile, which, at the same time, affords all occupants one of the widest fields of view in the compact SUV segment.
CX-5's exterior design was developed to create optimal airflow, making the overall shape as
smooth as possible. This not only helped it achieve high fuel efficiency but also kept wind noise to a comfortable minimum. Additionally, all models are equipped with a rear spoiler, which not only aids in the vehicle's already exceptional aerodynamic performance but also complements its aggressive poise. With a 0.33 coefficient of drag, CX-5 is one of the sleekest wind cutters currently on the market.
The vehicle's exterior expression is evident in its interior impression as well. The driver-oriented cabin is intuitive with easy-to-read screens and a multitude of frequently-used controls within well-placed reach. And passengers are welcomed as well to relax in the comfort of the compact SUV's supportive seats and soft-touch surfaces.
Black provides the clean base color throughout the cabin with sculpted, body-embracing seating
available in either black or a two-tone black/sand on a choice of two cloth fabric patterns or
genuine perforated leather. The black-on-black layout begets a traditional go-to color scheme for affluent sportiness. The sand-on-black arrangement offers a vibrant and refined colorcontrasting option. Both color choices present the well-tailored fit and finish of the CX-5's interior with defined luxury and non-discriminating comfort.
With no detail overlooked, every surface and crevice has been designed with purpose in addition to style. Featuring an abundance of soft materials on the door trims and upper dash panels, piano black accents and satin chrome elements further convey a high-end, well-crafted sense of quality. The instrument cluster offers meter lighting that makes the gauges bright and visible in the daylight as well as non-blinding in the darkness. The three-spoke racing-inspired steering wheel appeals to enthusiasts and offers functional features such as a tilt-and-telescopic adjustable column with steering-wheel-mounted audio and cruise controls as standard equipment.
Such luxury features easily abound on the CX-5's segment-leading wheelbase length of 106.3
inches. Seating five adults and offering a cabin that is undeniably flexible to everyday errands and weekend getaways, CX-5 does more than accommodate the demands of today's active allwork and all-play lifestyles; it embraces them.
Amongst the roomiest interiors for the segment, legroom for the second row is an ample 39.3
inches with an equally generous knee clearance of 2.6 inches. The wide cavity under the front
seats also offers abundant rear passenger foot space and can be used as additional storage to
hide personal effects. Rear headroom is a roomy 39.0 inches.
Up front, both the driver and passenger can enjoy 40.1 inches of headroom (39.0 inches when
equipped with a moonroof), 57.5 inches for the broadest of shoulders and 41.0 inches to stretch long legs. Six- or eight-way power-adjustable driver seats are standard on all but the Sport model, which is equipped with a six-way manual adjustable driver's seat.
Rear cargo volume is cavernous at 34.1 cubic feet behind the second-row seats. With those
seats down, capacity balloons to 64.8 cubic feet in Sport models and 65.4 cubic feet in Touring and Grand Touring models. Sport trims feature a standard 60/40-split fold-flat seat configuration while Touring and Grand Touring trims come standard with 40/20/40-split rear seats. While not the first compact SUV to offer a three-piece independent seat layout, CX-5 does offer the ultimate in simplicity of operation. A single-action topside seat button allows the left- and rightside seat backs to fold down while a looped handled frees the middle section. Release levers located in the cargo area also offer easy single-motion fold down capability.
Connect and Communicate
Whether challenging a curvy highway solo or cruising downtown straight-aways with a full house, audio and infotainment features are a short stroll for the fingertips. A 5.8-inch in-dash touch screen commands the center console stack and features intuitive phone, audio and navigation functions (when equipped). Streamlined steering wheel controls also enable a more
straightforward operation of the infotainment system.
Other available features include Bluetooth® phone and audio connectivity as well as iPod® audio playback in which iPod information can be accessed via the 5.8-inch touch screen. USB and auxiliary jack connections are standard and located in the center console storage bin.
A nine-speaker Bose® Centerpoint® Surround Sound System with AudioPilot® was custom
developed to please even the most discerning audiophile. The 225-watt sound system uses
premium lightweight materials and components yet offers the clarity and performance similar to
larger, bulkier sound systems. CX-5 also is available with HD Radio™ Technology and
Pandora®, which is new for the 2014 model. HD Radio is a subscription-free digital AM and FM
broadcast radio service that provides crystal-clear sound, on-screen station information as well as additional programming choices via HD2 and HD3 channels. Pandora offers personalized
stations based on the input of a single "seed" (i.e. favorite band, song or genre) and continually customizes its playlist using musicological "DNA" and listener feedback.
An in-dash TomTom technology-based navigation system is available for Touring and Grand
Touring models and features premium North American maps, advanced lane guidance,
instinctive voice recognition and real-time traffic alerts. The navigation module communicates with the Sanyo display head unit in the CX-5 via a USB interface and utilizes an SD card for storing map data. The SD card feature allows consumers to input customized maps and regularly update mapping content via any personal computer.
Amenities Come Standard
While final pricing will be available closer to the vehicle's on-sale date, the 2014 CX-5 will be no slouch in being competitively priced with a wealth of standard offerings. Affordability and value need not be synonymous with other descriptors such as "base," "dinky" or "few," as in fewest amenities. Not with Mazda and not with the CX-5.
Equipped with a SKYACTIV-G 2.0-liter gasoline engine and SKYACTIV-MT six-speed manual,
Sport models start with high-level features such as 17-inch aluminum alloy wheels, daytime
running lights (DRL), power side view mirrors, automatic headlight shutoff as well as exterior
cues in a body-colored rear spoiler, shark-fin antenna, door handles and outside mirrors with turn lamps.
The pleasantly appointed cabin offers cloth seat upholstery, power windows with a driver's side one-touch auto up/down feature, cruise control, a tilt-and-telescopic steering wheel, steeringwheel-mounted audio and cruise control functions, air conditioning with a pollen filter, a fourspeaker AM/FM/CD/MP3-compatible radio with Automatic Level Control (ALC), 60/40-split foldflat rear seats as well as auxiliary and USB connection ports – all standard.
Push-button start also is standard on all models, making CX-5 the only non-luxury compact SUV
to offer this premium feature at a convenient consumer-friendly cost of zero. CX-5 Sport models can be equipped with the optional SKYACTIV-Drive six-speed automatic transmission and the Active Torque-Split AWD system (not available with manual transmission). Navigation also is available as a stand-alone option. A Bluetooth Audio Package can be added and includes Bluetooth hands-free phone and audio connectivity, a 5.8-inch in-dash color touch screen, HD Radio Technology, Pandora and a new 2014 model year feature for audio message receipt and delivery.
When a smartphone is connected, Short Message Service (SMS) messages can be received
and shown on the touch screen monitor. The system can then articulate the messages as well
as allow users to send replies using fixed phrases. A new speech recognition system also allows users to repeat and shuffle audio tracks as well as search and select folders.
Moving up to the Touring model, the Bluetooth Audio Package for Sport models becomes
standard equipment as do fog lamps, privacy glass windows, upgraded cloth upholstery, a sixway power-adjustable driver's seat, an upgraded six-speaker AM/FM/CD/MP3-compatible radio,
a leather-wrapped steering wheel and shift knob, a rearview camera with distance guide lines
(viewable via the 5.8-inch touch screen monitor), a Blind Spot Monitoring (BSM) system,
40/20/40-split fold-flat rear seats and a rear seat armrest with cup holders. The SKYACTIV-G
2.5-liter gasoline engine and SKYACTIV-Drive automatic transmission are standard fare on
Options available as Touring add-ons are a Moonroof/Bose Package and Technology Package.
The Moonroof/Bose Package includes a moonroof and the premium 225-watt Bose Surround
Sound System. The Technology Package adds the TomTom technology-based in-dash
navigation module, an auto-dimming mirror with Homelink®, automatic on/off bi-xenon autoleveling headlights, a pivoting Adaptive Front-lighting System (AFS), rain-sensing windshield wipers and a Smart City Brake Support (SCBS) system, which is a new safety feature for North America.
SCBS is designed to assist a driver in avoiding a head-on collision when driving at low speeds, roughly between three to 19 miles per hour. A laser sensor mounted at the top of the front windshield is used detect an obtrusive object and will reduce the brake rotor travel to quicken braking should the system calculate that there is a risk of a collision occurring. If the driver fails to perform an avoidance maneuver, the SCBS system will activate an automatic braking function.
SCBS was developed to mitigate damage due to a collision and not as a replacement for actual
driver operation and control. Top-of-the-line Grand Touring models are equipped with all the luxuries of Touring models and adds the Moonroof/Bose Package as standard equipment. The 17-inch aluminum alloys that prop up Sport and Touring vehicles are replaced with larger 19-inch aluminum alloy wheels on the Grand Touring. Other standard niceties include automatic headlights, heated outside mirrors, rain-sensing windshield wipers, perforated leather-trimmed seat upholstery, heated front seats, an eight-way power adjustable driver's seat with power lumbar support, dual-zone automatic climate control and Sirius® Satellite Radio with four months of complimentary service.
A Technology Package, similar to that on Touring models, also is available for Grand Touring
vehicles. Options include the in-dash TomTom navigation system, an auto-dimming mirror with
Homelink, automatic on/off bi-xenon auto-leveling headlights, a pivoting Adaptive Front-lighting System (AFS), Mazda Advanced Keyless Entry and Smart City Brake Support (SCBS).
No Compromise on Safety
In fully embracing the philosophy of SKYACTIV TECHNOLOGY, safety moves to the forefront,
above fuel efficiency and driving dynamics. SKYACTIV vehicles are vehicles without
compromise and the CX-5's SKYACTIV-Body and SKYACTIV-Chassis ensure the vehicle
structure is not only reinforced and quiet but rigid and able to protect occupants during impact.
Drivers will feel secure in a vehicle that reacts as precisely and predictably as they react –
steering and braking controls are linear, reacting to small inputs with small actions and large actions to large inputs.
Re-examining the suspension and steering systems, the lightweight construction of the
SKYACTIV-Chassis includes a front strut suspension and a multi-link rear format along with an
assortment of design changes. While structures and sub-assemblies may seem familiar, every
individual component was examined to ensure it provides the greatest efficiency, lightest weight and offers the appropriate levels of driver involvement.
The SKYACTIV-Body is comprised of 61 percent high-tensile steel, creating a lighter, stronger
body with superior handling. As a result, the overall structure is eight percent lighter than
previous Mazda vehicles. CX-5 also has the distinction of being the first mass-produced vehicle to utilize 1,800MPa ultra high-tensile steel in manufacturing. Located in the front and rear bumper beams, they are 20 percent stronger and 10.6 pounds lighter than previous generation bumpers.
All 2014 CX-5 models come standard with advanced vehicle safety features, including six
airbags (advanced dual front, front-seat mounted and full-length side curtain), an Anti-lock Brake System (ABS), Electronic Brakeforce Distribution (EBD) with Brake Assist, Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) with a Traction Control System (TCS), a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS), Roll Stability Control (RSC), front and rear side crumple zones, side impact door beams, threepoint safety belts for all seating positions, a fold-away brake pedal assembly, front seatbelt pretensioners with force limiters as well as Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children (LATCH).
Also, all Mazda vehicles come with the Mazda Certified Roadside Assistance Program. Using
either the toll-free number or free Mazda Assist app for iOS- and Android-operated mobile
devices, vehicle owners and their family members can contact roadside assistance 24 hours a
day, 365 days a year throughout the United States and Canada. In addition, the New Vehicle
Limited Warranty includes a comprehensive three-year/36,000-mile warranty, which covers every part of the vehicle except those subject to normal wear, a five-year/60,000-mile powertrain warranty and a five-year/unlimited-mileage corrosion warranty.
ALL-NEW 2014 MAZDA6 SEDAN, SKYACTIV-D CLEAN DIESEL ENGINE MAKE NORTH AMERICAN DEBUT IN LOS ANGELES
- Redesigned Mid-Size Sedan is First Mazda to Offer Diesel Engine in North America -
LOS ANGELES (November 29, 2012) – The wait is over: Mazda's SKYACTIV-D 2.2-liter clean
diesel engine has arrived, hand-in-hand with the all-new 2014 Mazda6, the latest – and sexiest – beauty to emerge from the brand's KODO design-inspired lineup. Making its North American
debut today at the Los Angeles Auto Show, the highly-anticipated mid-size sedan will go on sale in January 2013 and be equipped first with a SKYACTIV-G 2.5-liter gasoline engine. The
SKYACTIV-D-equipped version will follow suit during the second half of the year, making Mazda
the first Asian manufacturer to offer a modern-technology clean-diesel engine in a noncommercial vehicle. The 2014 Mazda6 also will be the first production vehicle to feature Mazda's capacitor-based brake energy regeneration system called i-ELOOP.
"We've dangled the carrot long enough and we couldn't be more excited to officially introduce
North America to our latest next-generation product, the 2014 Mazda6, as well as showcase
even more engineering accomplishments under our SKYACTIV®1 TECHNOLOGY umbrella with
the SKYACTIV-D clean diesel engine and i-ELOOP," said Jim O'Sullivan, president and CEO,
Mazda North American Operations (MNAO). "As Mazda continues to grow and SKYACTIV
TECHNOLOGY continues to offer real-world efficiency and performance, our Los Angeles
announcements are only tips of the iceberg. The best is yet come."
Strongly influenced by the TAKERI Concept, the Mazda6 makes no excuses for its style, safety
and spunk – qualities usually absent in a mid-size sedan. The KODO "Soul of Motion" design
language commands and creates every facet of the vehicle's handsome sheet metal, from its
alluringly swept elongated hood and cab-forward proportions to the chiseled steel shaping its
frame, the Mazda6 suggests power and elegance before the gas pedal is even floored to go.
To be available with a choice of SKYACTIV transmissions in either the SKYACTIV-Drive sixspeed automatic or SKYACTIV-MT six-speed manual, official EPA fuel economy numbers for the
2014 Mazda6 are not yet available but are targeted to be class leading.
Nestled under its expansive hood lies a choice between the 13:1 high-compression ratio
SKYACTIV-G 2.5-liter gasoline engine or the new SKYACTIV-D 2.2-liter clean diesel engine,
which offers an impressively low compression ratio of 14:1. The SKYACTIV-G 2.5L is estimated
to achieve a lead-foot worthy 184 horsepower at 5,700 rpm and 185 lb-ft of torque at 3,250 rpm.
Performance estimates for the SKYACTIV-D clean diesel engine are not yet available.
Expected to offer a high amount of torque as well as cleaner combustion, the SKYACTIV-D 2.2L
is 10 percent lighter than the current MZR 2.2-liter diesel engine sold in other global markets.
Other improvements include internal engine friction reduced by 20 percent and improved fuel
economy. This is achieved by using a new two-stage turbocharger, which delivers a smooth and
steady response across the engine range (up to 5,200 rpm). Also, with an ultra-low compression ratio, the SKYACTIV-D diesel engine burns cleaner and discharges fewer nitrogen oxides to produce virtually no soot, thus requiring no additional NOx aftertreatments, which is typical of conventional diesel engines.
Final specifications for all 2014 Mazda6 models will be available closer to the on-sale date.
Standard features, optional packages and pricing also will be released at a later date but
consumers can anticipate Mazda's current slew of performance-inspired, design-engineered
amenities such as aggressively styled large-size alloy wheels, expressive LED lights,
supportively bolstered seats and high quality interior materials as well as premium technology
offerings in a TomTom-based in-dash navigation system, Bose® premium audio, Bluetooth®
phone and audio connectivity, audio menu voice command capability, HD Radio™ Technology,
Pandora® and Short Message Service (SMS) audio delivery and reply, to name a few.
An all-new safety component called Smart City Brake Support (SCBS) will be offered and is
designed to assist a driver in avoiding front collisions when traveling at speeds of less than 20 miles per hour. An imbedded laser sensor detects an obtrusive object and will reduce the brake rotor travel to quicken braking should the system calculate that there is a risk of a collision occurring. If the driver fails to perform an avoidance maneuver, the SCBS system will activate an automatic braking function.
Derived from "Intelligent Energy Loop," i-ELOOP, Mazda's in-house developed brake energy
regeneration system, also is all new and makes its first production vehicle appearance in the
2014 Mazda6 after first being introduced globally on the TAKERI Concept. As part of a growing
number of fuel-saving technologies, regenerative braking systems use an electric motor or
alternator to generate electricity as the vehicle decelerates, thereby recovering a portion of the vehicle's kinetic energy to power electrical components, such as air conditioning and audio features. Such systems used in hybrid vehicles typically require a bulky electric motor and a heavy battery.
i-ELOOP is the world's first capacitor-based brake energy regeneration system to provide power
all the electrical mechanisms in a vehicle. Other capacitor-based systems have been used to
provide electricity to a single vehicle component or motor. Compared to systems utilized in
hybrid vehicles, i-ELOOP avoids the need for a dedicated electrical motor and battery, making
the system more efficient, compact and lighter than traditional systems. Also, capacitors have the ability to charge and discharge rapidly and are resistant to deterioration despite prolonged use. In real-world driving conditions, which can feature frequent acceleration and braking, i-ELOOP is expected to improve overall fuel economy but is dependent on road conditions and driving habits.